During his early years, Dehodencq studied in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux Arts under the tutelage of French artist Leon Cogniet. Following the French revolution of 1848 he spent five years in Spain where he became acquainted with the works of Spanish painters Diego Velázquez and Francisco Goya which had a strong influence on his approach to painting.
In 185he travelled to Morocco where for the following ten years he produced many of his most famous paintings depicting scenes of the world he encountered. While he considered himself to be a 'Last of the Romantics', his work is generally categorized in the mid 19th century realists artistic movement.
Dehodencq was the first foreign artist known to have lived in Morocco for an extended number of years. He returned to Paris in 1863. He died in 1882 having been sick for a long time. His painting 'A Jewish Woman with her Negro Maid', 186is at the Israel Museum Jerusalem.